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L'expédition avec Joomla 4 est la nouvelle CLI (interface de ligne de commande) améliorée qui se trouve au cœur de Joomla. Vous pouvez désormais effectuer des tâches de maintenance sans même vous connecter à votre site Web. Découvrons comment.

"Un Joomla pour tous", c'est une déclaration audacieuse. Mais, c'est vraiment vrai. D'une part, Joomla est un CMS convivial avec un panneau d'administration intuitif pour les débutants et les utilisateurs occasionnels. Tandis que, d'autre part, Joomla est une puissante application CMS qui regorge de fonctionnalités pour l'utilisateur avancé. Par conséquent, Joomla est parfaitement adapté à toutes les applications Web, d'un simple site Web d'entreprise de 5 pages à une solution de commerce électronique complexe pour une boutique en ligne très fréquentée.

En fait, si vous regardez dans le JED (Joomla Extension Directory), il y a une extension disponible pour presque tout ce que vous voudriez produire. S'il n'y a pas d'extension disponible pour votre site Web prévu, ne vous inquiétez pas. Il existe des extensions disponibles pour vous aider à créer votre propre extension Joomla personnalisée et unique.

Vous pouvez même partir de zéro et utiliser le cadre standard et bien structuré de Joomla pour créer votre propre extension. En cas de succès, vous pouvez ensuite l'ajouter au JED et laisser les autres utiliser votre extension.

A quel point ce serait cool?

L'une des façons dont Joomla, et en particulier Joomla 4, rend cela possible est la nouvelle CLI (interface de ligne de commande) améliorée qui est livrée avec le noyau Joomla 4.

Alors, jetons un coup d'œil à la CLI et découvrons à quoi vous pourriez l'utiliser.

Au fil des années et de l'amélioration de la technologie, Joomla facilite de plus en plus l'exécution de certaines tâches sans même avoir à se connecter au tableau de bord d'administration. Nous avons récemment parlé du planificateur de tâches de Joomla , qui vous permet de configurer des tâches Cron pour des tâches répétitives à partir de Joomla lui-même. Il existe également l'API Joomla, qui peut être utilisée pour contrôler Joomla à partir d'une source/d'un site Web distant. Il y a aussi la CLI de Joomla.

La CLI de Joomla est un moyen de se connecter à votre site Web Joomla et d'effectuer des tâches à partir d'un terminal distant, tel que SSH à partir du panneau de contrôle de votre hébergement de site Web.

Ceci est particulièrement utile et vous fait gagner du temps si vous exploitez plusieurs sites Web à partir du même compte d'hébergement.

Commençons par comprendre ce qu'est une interface de ligne de commande :

Qu'est-ce qu'une interface de ligne de commande ?

Une interface de ligne de commande (CLI) est une interface utilisateur (UI) utilisée pour exécuter des logiciels, gérer des fichiers informatiques et interagir avec un ordinateur/serveur. La CLI permet à l'utilisateur de répondre aux invites visuelles en tapant des commandes individuelles dans une interface, puis de recevoir des réponses de la même manière. L'invite de commande Windows est une interface de ligne de commande que vous connaissez déjà.


qu'est-ce qu'un cli


Users respond to the visual prompts by typing the command in a specified row and receiving the reply from the operating system. This software provides the prompt, users respond, and then an app reacts sequentially to commands. Through this command-and-response interaction, a user can issue a set of commands that are executed by a system or an application like Joomla.

The prompts and commands available depend on your operating system and the specific command-line interface, but there can be hundreds, if not thousands, of different commands executable. Many of the commands are the same between the different platforms out there, and you may well be familiar with some of them. However, there are some commands that are particular to the specific CLI and application you use.

You may already be familiar with various apps in which you can use a command-line interface. Common applications include the ‘Terminal’ on Macs, in windows it’s known as the ‘Command Prompt’, and on your website server in the Control Panel it’s referenced as SSH.

Entering text commands to control your app may seem daunting at first, but it’s a skill well used in Linux and other unix based operating systems. It’s also a skill that’s worth learning if you want to become a website developer. Once you become familiar with the terminology of using a CLI, there are other uses that you will come across as you hone your skills.


For Example: 

Using Node.js to make a web app in an editing suite like Jet Brains Webstorm.


Running commands for your clients, on Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances using a remote terminal program such as PuTTY or SSH.


However, there are GUI-based ‘shells’ available that are considered easier to use by beginners. Although, strictly speaking, the term shell is usually used to describe a command-line interpreter. A shell may be any program comprising the UI, including completely graphical-oriented ones.

Where is Joomla’s CLI?

Unlike many other Joomla extenstions which you can find in the admin area of your Joomla website, Joomla's Command-Line Interface is part of the core. So, there are no settings to fiddle with, it's just there and working quietly in the background of your Joomla website.

How Do I Use Joomla’s CLI?


let me explain


First things first. Before you can access the Joomla CLI, you’ll need to create a way to connect directly to your website’s host without actually logging into your Joomla, or your Host’s Cpanel.

Cpanel recommends using a desktop application called ‘PuTTY’ if you run Windows on your computer, although if you run Windows 10, or later, it has its own Windows SSH Client which you can access from the Command Prompt.

To access the Command Prompt, open the Run dialog box, by hitting the Windows key + r. Then, in the Run dialog box, type cmd and then click OK to open a command prompt window.

If you use Linux, or run a Mac, you may well already have software installed to connect directly to your website server. For the basis of this article I’ll assume you’re running Windows, as I am.

Each way of accessing your website server’s similar, but you’ll have to set up SSH access on your website hosting's Control Panel first before you can connect to Joomla’s CLI.

For this article I’ll be using ‘PuTTY’ as I’m on a Windows 8 machine, and there are several quirks I’ve had to solve along the way, so I’ll share some those with you as well to save you some time setting up SSH access to your website’s server.

So head on over to the ‘PuTTY’ download page and install ‘PuTTY’ on your machine if needed.


Joomla 4 CLI Installing PuTTY


The next step is to activate SSH on your web hosting’s Cpanel, or other web hosting control panel, Plesk, for example. We’ll stick with Cpanel as it’s the most popular.

Set Up Your Access Keys

To use SSH, you’ll need to set up and manage a pair of public/private keys in Cpanel. The instructions seem complicated at first, but they’re really quite straightforward. There's a good article on the A2 Hosting website with lots of information for different operating systems. The instructions may differ slightly from host to host, so I’d encourage you to research this for your specific use case.


Joomla 4 CLI SSH Private Public Keys


It’s also worth remembering that you’ll have to download your private key to your computer, so remember where you put it. If you use a native SSH client in Mac/Linux, or Windows 10, you should save the key file to:

Mac/Linux: /home/username/.ssh directory. (Replace username with your own username.)

Windows 10: \Users\username\.ssh directory (Replace username with your own username.)

This is so your terminal program knows where to find your key.

If you use ‘PuTTY’ then just remember where it’s downloaded as you’ll need to reference it in ‘PuTTY’s’ settings.

Set Up PuTTY TO Access Your Server

If you installed ‘PuTTY’ already, find the desktop icon and open the program. If not, install it now. The desktop icon to open PuTTY looks like this:

putty icon

Setting up PuTTY to access your server isn't difficult, there are only 3 things you need to enter. These may vary slightly depending on your website host, so you’ll have to check this for your own circumstance. In my case, I need to do the following:


  1. Enter the username for my hosting account along with the domain I want access to. This needs to be written in the ‘Host Name (or IP Address)’ field in the ‘Session’ category tab.

putty settings 1


  1. Next, in the ‘Port’ field, type in your SSH connection port number. The default is 22, but many hosts change this to boost connection security. Mine is 7822.

putty settings 2


  1. Now, you need to open a new tab in the category tree, scroll down to ‘SSH’, then open ‘Auth’. At the bottom of the tab, browse to the location you saved your downloaded SSH Private Key to, highlight it, and click ‘Open’.

putty settings 3


  1. Go back to your Session tab and in the ‘Saved Sessions’ field add a memorable name to it. Then click the ‘Save’ button.

putty settings 4


  1. You’re now ready to connect to your website hosting’s SSH Client with ‘PuTTY’. You can either double click on your saved memorable name, or click the open button.

putty settings 5


If all’s gone according to plan, you should now see PuTTY’s terminal window. It should look something like this:

putty terminal


The terminal window should look similar from this point onwards, regardless of the operating system or SSH client you use. The commands you issue will also be the same. So, I’ll move forward just referring to the ‘Terminal’.

The next step is to enter the password you created when you set up the public/private keys in Cpanel. If you don’t do this within a set period of time, your website server will close the connection to your terminal and you’ll receive an error message like this:


erreur de mastic


Voici l'une des bizarreries de l'utilisation d'un terminal pour se connecter au serveur de votre site Web. Lors de la saisie de votre mot de passe, rien ne s'affiche ! Pas d'étoiles, pas de tirets, rien. J'ai également remarqué que je ne pouvais pas non plus copier coller mon mot de passe dans la fenêtre du terminal (bien que cela puisse être particulier à 'PuTTY').

Je suis un partisan des mots de passe forts super longs, mais cela pourrait être une exception aux règles ! Bien que je vous conseille toujours de suivre les conseils de votre Cpanel quant à la force du mot de passe créé. Comme mentionné dans les articles précédents, john123 n'est pas assez bon. En fonction de vos clés SSH, de votre système d'exploitation et de votre instance Cpanel, il se peut que vous n'ayez à saisir votre mot de passe que pour la connexion initiale. Mais les sessions suivantes ne vous demanderont pas votre mot de passe. Ce qui peut vous concerner ou non.

Utiliser votre terminal pour accéder à la CLI de Joomla

Alors, allez-y et tapez votre mot de passe et, lorsque vous avez terminé, cliquez sur "Entrée" sur votre clavier.


mastic connecté


If all’s gone well, you should see a new line of information that looks like:


username@123host [~] #


This is the root directory for your website files. Depending on your website hosting package, this will probably be in your ‘public_html’ folder.

If you’ve installed Joomla to a different directory, you’ll need to navigate to that directory next. This is also true if you run more than one instance of Joomla on the same hosting package.


It’s time to dust off your old DOS handbook!


In my example, my domain designwebs.co.uk is in a folder that’s outside on my public_html folder like so:

If you remember your DOS commands, you can simply type cd [your folder name here], so in my example cd desighwebs.co.uk where the cursor is flashing in your terminal window. CD is short-code and simply means “Change Directory”.


change directory in terminal


I’m now in the correct directory in which to operate the Joomla CLI. If you want to check you're in the same directory as Joomla, you can simply type ‘dir’ (which is short for 'directory') at the prompt and all the familier Joomla files and folders in that directory will be listed. Like so:


terminal joomla directory


Let’s use Joomla’s CLI

It seems to have taken a long time to get to this point, but it shouldn’t take too long once you’ve mastered the use of your terminal window or an SSH client like ‘PuTTY’. The whole point of the Joomla CLI is to speed up tasks, especially those that involve waiting for those tasks to complete. Backing up your website is a good example of using Joomla’s CLI. We’ll get into that later.

So, let’s make our first call to Joomla’s CLI and make sure we’re connected and everything’s working as expected.

The standard format to connect to Joomla’s CLI begins with:

php cli/joomla.php

Although if you enter the cli directory (cd my-website-folder-name/cli), rather than working from Joomla’s root directory, you can use:

php joomla.php


The Updated Joomla CLI documentation gives more information about the tasks you can complete using the Joomla CLI.

A good task to test our connection would be to find out what version of Joomla the website is running on.

So, at the command prompt, type in:

php cli/joomla.php core:check-updates

And hit enter.


terminal check joomla version


PuTTY Note:

If you copy a Joomla CLI command with your copy/paste function, all you need to do to paste it into PuTTY’s terminal is a single right mouse click as the cursor.


If you’re connected, and everything’s working, you’ll be rewarded with a message detailing the version of Joomla that your website is running on.

terminal joomla cli version

Joomla Command-Line Interface (CLI) Format

When you enter commands in your terminal to access Joomla’s CLI, there is a set format.

Which may comprise 2 or more parts, depending on what you want to do, and how much information you require back.

Each Joomla component developer will be able to offer varying amounts of control and data retrieval for their software based on Joomla’s CLI. An early adopter of this Joomla functionality is Akeeba, so using Akeeba Backup as an example, you can control almost all functionality from your terminal.

The following CLI command asks for the backup data held for a specific backup:

php cli/joomla.php akeeba:backup:info 1 --format=json

So, let’s break it down, so it means something.


php cli/joomla.php

The URL needed to activate Joomla’s CLI


A unique name for the command 


The particular software


The action you’d like to complete


An argument for the command (if required)


An option, or two. In this case the output of our CLI command will be in a Json format.


Make sure to take note of the spaces and colons in the command so that it functions properly.

akeeba backup info output

Joomla’s CLI commands follow a similar principle of arguments and options, but as they are ‘core’ commands, they are a little simpler.

Currently, Joomla’s CLI commands fall into 11 categories

Cache, Config, Core, Database, Extension, Finder, Scheduler, Session, Site, Update and User.

Each having their own functions.

For Example:

php cli/joomla.php core:check-updates Checks for Joomla updates

php cli/joomla.php site:down Put the site into offline mode

Adding options to the parameters of the CLI command can help to narrow down your results. For example, if you want to find what extensions they used to build your website, you would use the command:

php cli/joomla.php extension:list

But, if you only wanted to find specific extensions of a certain type, related to languages, for example, you would use the same command but add the option --type=language:

php cli/joomla.php extension:list --type=language

Which would return the following information:

Installed extensions.


 ----------------- -------------- --------- ---------- --------

Name Extension ID Version Type Active

 ----------------- -------------- --------- ---------- --------

English (en-GB) 222 4.1.4 language Yes

English (en-GB) 223 4.1.4 language Yes

English (en-GB) 224 4.1.4 language Yes

 ----------------- -------------- --------- ---------- --------


If you type in php cli/joomla.php at the command prompt in your terminal, you will get a list of all Joomla CLI commands and descriptions.

Let’s Start Using Joomla’s CLI

We’re going to run 4 basic maintenance tasks that you should complete regularly on our Joomla website. All from a terminal, without logging into Joomla’s back-end admin. We’re going to use 4 simple CLI commands to accomplish these tasks.

First, we need to gather the commands we will use. You can find current Joomla CLI commands in the Cheat Sheet below. As Akeeba Backup is the most widely used Joomla Backup extension, we will use that to take a backup.

The CLI commands we need are:

php cli/joomla.php update:extensions:check

php cli/joomla.php akeeba:backup:take

php cli/joomla.php extension:discover:install

php cli/joomla.php cache:clean

If you’re not already, login to your terminal of choice and make sure that you’re in Joomla’s root directory.

Task One: Check for extension updates

Enter php cli/joomla.php update:extensions:check at your terminal command prompt.


terminal check for joomla extention updates

In my case, no updates were available to install. The success message is shown in green. I’d say the time taken for this command to execute was less than 3 seconds.

Task Two: Take a backup

It’s now time to take a backup with Akeeba Backup. Enter php cli/joomla.php akeeba:backup:take at your terminal command prompt.


terminal akeeba backup

Taking a backup obviously takes a little longer. During the backup process, the progress is detailed in the terminal window in much the same way as you see in Joomla’s admin backend.

The success of the backup is shown in green. From the timestamps, you can see that it only took 1 minute 10 seconds to complete. Which is pretty good.

Task Three: Install extension update

It’s time now to install any extension updates. Enter php cli/joomla.php extension:discover:install at the terminal command prompt.


terminal install extension updates

In my case, everything is up to date, so nothing to install. If this is the case, the CLI gives advice on what you could do instead. In this instance, the Joomla CLI suggested it try to run the command extension:discover. This works in the same way as running the ‘install > discover’ option from your System Dashboard.

Task Four: Clear Joomla’s Cache

Lastly, we will clean up Joomla’s cache. Enter php cli/joomla.php cache:clean at your terminal’s command prompt.


terminal cache clean

Once the cache’s been emptied of its junk, you’ll again see a green success message.

Error Messages

If you make a typo while entering your CLI command, or enter an unrecognised command, you will receive an error message in red. The message will contain a little useful information to help you work out what went wrong. You can see in the image below it says:

Command “cache:clea” is not defined

The command “cache:clea” does not exist

Of course, my typo referencing ‘cache:clea’ doesn’t exist in the Joomla CLI, therefore it’s not defined in an action to carry out. Thus it throws an error.


terminal error messages


Check Akeeba Backup in Admin

It’s not always going to be possible to check whether a CLI command was actually initiated, without some digging in Joomla’s files and settings. But, some extensions make it easy. Let’s look at Akeeba Backup again. If you login to your Joomla admin panel and navigate to Akeeba Backup’s Control Panel, you will see the ‘Backup Statistics’ panel on the right-hand side. Here you can see that the last backup was initiated from the Command Line. It also gives details about the backup taken and the time it was taken.


joomla admin akeeba backup

What Are The Benefits Of Using Joomla’s CLI?

Like many topics discussed here in the Joomla magazine, there’s a lot more going on under the hood than there’s time or space to detail here. As with many topics, the ‘surface has just been scratched’ on this updated Joomla 4 feature.

I think the single biggest benefit of getting to grips with the Joomla Command-Line Interface is how quick it is to carry out those necessary tasks. From start to finish the four tasks detailed above took around 2 minutes, and that included starting up the ‘Putty’ terminal, connecting to my server via SSH, manually typing in the login password and copy/pasting each of the four commands, in turn.

If you multiply doing those same tasks over several websites, that would be a lot of time saved.

For advanced users, the command line and terminal give you the opportunity to automate repetitive tasks over multiple websites you have full access to. You can cycle through their directories and execute the same Joomla CLI command against them, quickly and easily.

Imagine the time it would take to manually login to Joomla’s admin and run Akeeba Backup individually over 100 different websites in your portfolio?

“ That’s the whole point of a command line application. It is very conducive to infinite customisation. Combined with something like Ansible it can even be used to execute commands across a fleet of hundreds of servers running thousands of sites.

Command-line tools work together to give you superpowers. “

Quote: Nicholas @ Akeeba

Personally, now I’ve set up ‘PuTTY’ I’m going to add SSH access to all of my websites and run those updates, backups and cache cleans every time I receive one of those ‘This is sent from your website’ update emails that clog up my inbox. I think it’s worth investing the time initially to create the SSH access keys and setting up a terminal. I may even take the time to write a batch command to cycle through each website in turn!


Let me know in the comments how you’ll use Joomla’s CLI


Joomla CLI Cheat Sheet

php cli/joomla.php (+ a command)

cache:clean Clean expired cache entries
config:get Display the current value of a configuration option
config:set Set a value for a configuration option
core:check-updates Check for Joomla updates
core:update Update Joomla
database:export database:export
database:import Import the database
extension:discover Discover extensions
extension:discover:install Install discovered extensions
extension:discover:list List discovered extensions
extension:install Install an extension from a URL or from a path
extension:list List installed extensions
extension:remove Remove an extension
finder:index Purges and rebuild the index
scheduler:list List all scheduled tasks
scheduler:run Run one or more scheduled tasks
scheduler:state Enable, disable or trash a scheduled task
session:gc Perform session garbage collection
session:metadata:gc Perform session metadata garbage collection
site:down Put the site into offline mode
site:up Put the site into online mode
update:extensions:check Check for pending extension updates
update:joomla:remove-old-files Remove old system files
user:add Add a user
user:addtogroup Add a user to a group
user:delete Delete a user
user:list List all users
user:removefromgroup Remove a user from a group
user:reset-password Change a user's password

Akeeba Backup CLI Cheat Sheet

php cli/joomla.php (+ a command)

akeeba:backup:alternate Take a backup with Akeeba Backup's frontend backup feature
akeeba:backup:alternate_check Check for failed Akeeba Backup backups with its front-end feature
akeeba:backup:check Check for failed Akeeba Backup backup attempts
akeeba:backup:delete Deletes a backup record known to Akeeba Backup, or just its files
akeeba:sauvegarde:télécharger Renvoie une partie d'archive de sauvegarde pour un enregistrement de sauvegarde connu d'Akeeba Backup
akeeba:sauvegarde:récupérer Télécharger une sauvegarde du stockage distant vers le serveur
akeeba:sauvegarde:info Répertorie un enregistrement de sauvegarde connu d'Akeeba Backup
akeeba:sauvegarde:liste Répertorie les enregistrements de sauvegarde connus d'Akeeba Backup
akeeba:sauvegarde:modifier Modifie un enregistrement de sauvegarde connu d'Akeeba Backup
akeeba:sauvegarde:prendre Faites une sauvegarde avec Akeeba Backup
akeeba:sauvegarde:upload Réessayez de télécharger une sauvegarde sur le stockage distant
akeeba:filter:supprimer Supprimer une valeur de filtre connue d'Akeeba Backup
akeeba:filtre:exclure Définir un filtre d'exclusion sur Akeeba Backup
akeeba:filter:include-database Ajoute une base de données supplémentaire à sauvegarder par Akeeba Backup
akeeba:filter:include-directory Ajouter un répertoire hors site supplémentaire à sauvegarder par Akeeba Backup
akeeba:filtre:liste Obtenir les valeurs de filtre connues d'Akeeba Backup
akeeba:log:obtenir Récupérer un fichier journal connu d'Akeeba Backup
akeeba:journal:liste Liste les fichiers journaux connus d'Akeeba Backup
akeeba : migrer Migre les paramètres d'Akeeba Backup 8
akeeba:option:obtenir Obtient la valeur d'une option de configuration pour un profil Akeeba Backup
akeeba:option:liste Répertorie les options de configuration d'un profil Akeeba Backup, y compris leur titre
akeeba:option:définir Définit la valeur d'une option de configuration pour un profil Akeeba Backup
akeeba:profil:copie Crée une copie d'un profil Akeeba Backup
akeeba:profil:créer Crée un nouveau profil Akeeba Backup
akeeba:profil:supprimer Supprimer un profil Akeeba Backup
akeeba:profil:exporter Exporte un profil Akeeba Backup sous forme de chaîne JSON
akeeba:profil:importer Importe un profil Akeeba Backup à partir d'une chaîne JSON
akeeba:profil:liste Liste les profils de sauvegarde d'Akeeba Backup
akeeba:profil:modifier Modifie un profil Akeeba Backup
akeeba:profil:réinitialiser Réinitialise un profil Akeeba Backup
akeeba:sysconfig:obtenir Obtient la valeur d'une option à l'échelle du composant Akeeba Backup
akeeba:sysconfig:list Répertorie les options à l'échelle du composant Akeeba Backup
akeeba:sysconfig:set Définit la valeur d'une option à l'échelle du composant Akeeba Backup


Lectures complémentaires













Photo de cow-boy par Drew Dau sur Unsplash

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